The Hodgkinson Group: Aviation and Climate Change Advisors

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The Hodgkinson Group distinguishes itself from other consulting firms by providing strategic, operational, regulatory and business advice in clearly defined, discrete areas.

A further point of distinction is the non-traditional structure of the Group. Advisors are located around the world and joined by common international experience. Ours is a collaborative endeavour, linked electronically, with no hierarchy. Our focus is always on the solution and the clarity of our advice.

The Group’s advisors have either held senior executive positions with or advised public and private sector clients, corporations, financial institutions, governments, not-for-profit associations, international organisations (including ICAO and IATA), international airlines and airports.

Against this background the Hodgkinson Group provides advice in the following areas:

Climate change

  • Domestic, regional and international climate change law and policy
  • Development and implementation of greenhouse and climate change policies
  • Climate change policy advice to governments at all levels, including local governments
  • Emissions trading schemes – design, scope and coverage, permits, allocation and linkage issues
  • Design of mandatory renewable energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement schemes, and advice on renewable energy projects
  • Structure of voluntary abatement projects
  • Kyoto ‘flexibility mechanisms’ including CDM and JI projects
  • Carbon sequestration, including biosequestration and geosequestration
  • Carbon markets, both compliance (or regulatory) and voluntary, derivative markets and carbon funds
  • Climate risk disclosure - corporate accounting and reporting standards, guidelines and protocols for quantifying and reporting GHG emissions
  • Airline strategies on climate change and aircraft emissions
  • Design of airline emissions offset schemes (including passenger default, or opt-out, schemes)
  • Research services on all aspects of climate change, the climate impacts of aviation, and aviation growth trends and GHG emission reductions
  • Emissions trading schemes and inclusion of aviation in regional and global schemes (whether open or closed), including geographic scope issues

Strategy and business - aviation

  • Alliances
  • Bilateral and multilateral air services agreements
  • Regulatory advice, including licence approvals and landing rights
  • Industry developments (the Group monitors industry developments and, from time to time, issues briefing papers on specific issues)
  • Business planning and structuring (including start-up business plans)
  • Corporate restructuring
  • Privatisation and corporatisation
  • Joint ventures
  • Project management
  • Risk management and due diligence

Operations - aviation

  • Scheduling (including slots)
  • Codesharing
  • Interlining
  • Ground and airport handling
  • Fuel trade and aviation fuel issues
  • User and overflight charges
  • Airline coding issues

Safety and security - aviation

  • IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA)
  • Quality management systems, quality assurance and quality audit principles and application
  • Safety management systems
  • System safety principles and application
  • Airside safety and management
  • Risk management principles and accident prevention strategy
  • Emergency management and crisis response program development and implementation (including family assistance)
  • Quality operating manuals and procedures development, including technical writing
  • Security in airline operations
  • Security conventions (Tokyo, Montreal and Hague)

Finance - aviation

  • Share capital arrangements (including share buy-backs; share capital consolidations; share and option subscription arrangements; share placement and reorganisation arrangements; preference share structures)
  • Equity raisings (including initial public offer prospectuses and stock exchange listings; share placement prospectuses and rights issues)

- Revenue accounting

  • IATA Clearing House regulations
  • Airlines Clearing House (ACH) Regulations
  • Interline billings
  • Proration
  • IATA Billing and Settlement Plan (BSP)
  • Revenue accounting manuals, procedures and processes
  • Selecting scheduled revenue accounting systems
  • Gap analysis and implementation of revenue accounting systems
  • Outsourcing and testing of revenue accounting systems
  • Analysis of frequent flyer programmes

Legal - aviation

(provided through our aviation law firm affiliate)

- Commercial and business

  • Aircraft sale agreements and aircraft lease and charter agreements
  • “Fly-in/ fly-out” agreements
  • IATA Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreements (MITA)
  • IATA Standard Ground Handling Agreement
  • Fuel supply agreements
  • Conditions of contract and conditions of carriage (including ticketing matters and e-ticketing)
  • Asset sale and purchase agreements
  • Joint venture agreements
  • Commercial property agreements
  • Employment agreements

- Regulatory

  • Operation and effect of aviation conventions (including those dealing with safety and security) and implementing legislation
  • Operation and effect of aviation-related legislation
  • Licensing and license approvals
  • Landing rights
  • IATA passenger services and passenger agency resolutions

- Liability

  • Warsaw Convention (as amended)
  • Montreal Convention 1999
  • IATA Intercarrier Agreements
  • Rome Convention (a new version of which is currently being drafted)
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
  • Passenger rights

- Training

   Air law training and seminars for lawyers, non-lawyers, managers and senior managers including the following topics:

  • Basic, intermediate and advanced air law, including aviation commercial and contract law
  • Specialised air law training and seminars for airline personnel and in-house legal staff
  • Liability: The Warsaw Convention (as amended), the Montreal Convention 1999 and the IATA Intercarrier Agreements
  • Legal aspects of flight operations
  • Legal aspects of aviation safety and security


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